ವರಷ ಉರುಳಿತು ಎದರುಗೊಂಡು,
ಮನಸ್ಸಿಲ್ಲದಿದ್ದರೂ ವಿವಶವಾಗಿದೆ ಮನಸ್ಸು,
ಯಾವುದು ಸರಿ, ಯಾವುದು ತಪ್ಪು,
ಯಾರು ಸರಿ, ಯಾರು ತಪ್ಪು,
ನಿರ್ಧರಿಸುವ ಮನಸ್ಸುಇನ್ನು ಉಳಿದಿಲ್ಲಾ.
ಈಗ ಮಾತಿಲ್ಲದಿರಬಹುದು, ದೂರವಿರಬಹುದು,
ಮನದ ಮೂಲೆಯಲ್ಲಿ, ಮೊಳಕೆಯಿಂದ
ಬಂದ ಬಾಲ್ಯದ ನೆನಪು ಯಾರು ಅಳಿಸಿಯಾರು?
ಮತ್ತೆ ಬರುವೆ ಬಾಲ್ಯದ ನೆನಪಿನ ಜೊತೆಗೆ,
ಬಾಲ್ಯದ ಮನಸ್ಸಿನ ಜೊತೆಗೆ.
ಹಂಚಿ ತಿಂದೆವು ಒಂದೇ ತಟ್ಟೆಯಲಿ,
ಕಾಲದ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞೆಯೇ ಇಲ್ಲದಂತೆ
ದೊಡ್ಡವರ ಗೋಜಿಗೆ ಹೋಗದೆ
ಕುಣಿದ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ದಿನಗಳು.
ಕಳೆದ ಆ ಸುಂದರ
BASE has established a Science Centre in the Planetarium which has become a nucleus for non-formal science education at all levels. The activities of the Science Centre and the Planetarium have made BASE a unique institution for the dissemination of science. A Science Park has been developed in the premises of the Planetarium.
Science popularisation activities of BASE viz., sky-theatre shows, monthly astronomy lectures, monthly science movies attract over two lakh visitors every year.
Our science education activities viz., Research Education Advancement Programme (REAP), Interactive Week-end Sessions for school children, Summer Programmes, Science Exhibitions and Workshops attract thousands of students every year. Over 35 students from BASE have got admission for Ph.D. courses in premier research institutes in India and abroad. They include Raman Research Institute, Indian Institute of Science, Wild Life Research Institute, Oxford University, Michigan State University, Delft Institute, State University New York, Buffalo, University of Florida, Cornell University.
JNP Address Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium
Bangalore Association for Science Education,
Sri T. Choudaiah Road, High Grounds,
Bangalore – 560 001 Land Mark: Opp. Indira Gandhi Musical Fountain, Near Raj Bhavan.
Once there was a conversation on the topic – What is “Universal Law”? with three persons whom I know very well, here are there views… (there actual WhatsApp conversation).
First Person : Is coulomb’s law universal law …. ?
Second Person: Vo nice… will think on this… it is difficult to term a law as universal.
Second Person: for me the concern is the constant present in the coulomb’s law….
Second Person: Change the equal sign to nearly equal or the force is proportional to the product of two charges by the square of the distance between them… is more or less Universal Law….
Second Person: And I also do have a feeling that no law is universal law….
Second Person: it is nearly universal but not fully universal!!
First Person : Can u get the criterion to call a law universal
Second Person: the only condition I believe is that, it should be valid at all points in the universe…
Second Person: If this is a condition… Just a single law cannot become universal… (up to the physics that we know today)
First Person: What do u mean by just a single law
Second Person: one law cannot be valid at all places… anta
Second Person: Even Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation is also not a universal law… the name still sticks to it.
First Person : Howda…. (Is it?)
First Person : Elli valid alla adu? (Where it is not valid?)
Second Person: Mercury ge valid agalla… (the law is not valid for mercury…)
Second Person: GPS system ge valid agalla… (it is not a suitable law for GPS…)
First Person : Every 2 particles having mass should obey
Second Person: Yes…
First Person : Mercury ge yake aagalla (Why the law is not valid for mercury?)
Second Person: I don’t remember where I read this…
Second Person: it says like this…
First Person: the light moving near the star bends due to SR or GR what ever? But the claim is that the star attracts (not a suitable word) light particles and in turn light also attracts the star at a very negligible force (which is not zero but negligible). According to Newton’s law how can light attract star, it does not have mass (rest mass!!)
Second Person: But these things are accounted for accurate measurement of many things… which is not the direct consequence of Newton’s Law!!
First Person: The concept is different from Newton’s law ashte
Second Person: Mercury has a special kind of motion called “Precision of its Orbit” which is not explained by Newton’s law.
Second Person: Yes, that puts a question on Mass? Does mass is the main source of gravity in the nature (which is true with newton’s law)
First Person : According to khan academy lecture precession is boz of sun earth interaction
Second Person: interaction through Gravity…
Second Person: if newton’s law talks about Gravity, then it should explain… these interactions… why it fails?
First Person : Yes
Second Person: btw this is only for Mercury…
First Person : Y not
Second Person: Uranus and Neptune were discovered because of the power of Newton’s Law….
Second Person: what I am trying to say is that, gravity is not just the way Newton’s Law define. It may be true at some places but not at all places… and Newton’s law does not give full picture of it… So it is not a universal law (that is why I said “Universal Law” should not be restricted to just one law)
First Person : G is called universal constant … law is valid at every place
Second Person: humm,
Second Person: What is the source of G?
First Person: Cavendish experiment proof
Second Person: Newton’s law is not just G. It is a constant number that is present in our universe. But the value of G does not talk about the nature of gravity… that is spoken by other parameters in the newtons law… which is not always true at all points in the space…
First Person : Do u mean (M)(m)/ r square. Is not true at certain places ?
Second Person: Yes, it is nearly true but not always… Once C. Sivram sir took a beautiful class in M.Sc.
Second Person: That is why we have General Theory of Relativity…
Second Person: Combination of both Newton’s Law and GR could be universal (if we really need to use this word)….
First Person: I’m stunned. .. no words
Second Person: Yes, that is Nature!!
First Person : Students ge hogi Newton’s law universal alla antha helbeka
Second Person: Interesting part is Kepler defines the motion of planet without using Gravity…. It perfectly fits.. Later newton comes and gives gravitational concept… Kepler did not even know about this Gravity.
Second Person: In fact nothing is universal!! anta ankondiddini… (In fact, I think nothing is universal)
Third Person : Even i think so…that, no law is universal “YET”
Second Person: Yet….? What next?
Third Person : May be in future we can get a universal law…
Second Person: Yes…
So, what is your thoughts on it? Reply to this article.
I mean ‘YoU(r)’niversal Law!!
ಕಣ್ಣು ಹರಿಯುವಷ್ಟು ಕಡಲು
ಮುಗಿಲೆತ್ತರಕ್ಕೆ ಚಾಚಿದ ಮರಗಳು
ಭೂಮಿ ಕಾಣದಷ್ಟು ಹಚ್ಚ ಹಸಿರು
ದಾಹ ಬಾರದಷ್ಟು ನೀರಿನ ಒಡಲು
ಕನಸಿಗೂ ಎಲ್ಲೆ ಸಿಗದಂತಿತ್ತು ನನ್ನ ಊರು
ಅಮ್ಮ, ಅಪ್ಪ, ತಾತ, ಅಜ್ಜಿಯ ಪ್ರೀತಿಗೆ
ಅಣ್ಣ, ತಮ್ಮ, ಅಕ್ಕ, ತಂಗಿಯ ತುಂಟ ಜಗಳಕೆ
ಸಾಕ್ಷಿಯಾಗಿ ನಿಂತ ಪ್ರೀತಿಯ ಗೋಡೆಯ ಸೂರು
ಅದರೊಳಗೆ ದುಂಬಿ ಯಂತೆ ಹಾರುತ್ತಿದ್ದೆ ನಾನು
ಬಲು ಚೆಂದ ಆ ನನ್ನ ಊರು
ಇದೋ ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಬಂದೆ ಕಾಯಕವ ಅರಸಿ
ಜೀವದ ಚಲನೆ ಇಲ್ಲದ ಕಾಂಕ್ರೀಟಿನ ಕಾಡಿಗೆ!
ಎದ್ದು ಬಂದೆ, ಬಂದು ಹೋದೆ, ಹೋಗಿ ಮಲಗಿ
ಜಡ ಹೊಡೆದಿರುವ ಯಂತ್ರದ ಭಾಗವಾಗಿಹೋದೆ!
ಪ್ರೀತಿ ಇಲ್ಲದ ಗೋಡೆಗಳ ಮಧ್ಯೆ ಸಿಲುಕಿ
ನರಳಿ ಅಳುತಿರುವ ಮನದ ರೋಧನವೇ ನನ್ನ ಸಂಗೀತ!
ಎಲ್ಲಿ ನೋಡಿದರಲ್ಲಿ ಸುವಿಯುವುದ ಕಾಂಚಾಣದ ಅಡುಗೆ
ಬಯಸಿದಾಗ ಬರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ ನನ್ನ ಬಳಿಗೆ!
ಹತ್ತು ಹೆಜ್ಜೆಗೆ ಸಮನಾಗಿಹೊಗಿದೆ ನನ್ನ ಒಂದು ಹೆಜ್ಜೆಯ ತೂಕ
ಕೆಲವೊಮ್ಮೆ ಅನ್ನಿಸುವುದೂ ಉಂಟು- ಇದೆಲ್ಲಾ ಬೇಕಾ?
ಆಸೆ ಕಟ್ಟಿಕೊಂಡು ನೆಡೆಯುತಿರುವ ದಾರಿ ಇದು
ಮರುಭೂಮಿಯಲಿ ಕೊಂಚ ನೀರು ಸಿಕ್ಕಂತೆ ಸಿಕ್ಕಿದರು
ಎಲ್ಲಿಂದಲೋ ಬಂದ ದೋಸ್ತಿಗಳು
ಸುಖ, ದುಃಖ, ನೋವು ನಲಿವು ನನ್ನ ಜೊತೆ ಹಂಚಿ ಉಂಡರು;
ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಕಣ್ಣು ಹರಿಯುವಷ್ಟು ಕಡಲಿಲ್ಲಾ
ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಮುಗಿಲೆತ್ತರಕ್ಕೆ ಚಾಚಿದ ಮರಗಳಿಲ್ಲಾ
ಇಲ್ಲಿ ದಾಹ ಬಾರದಷ್ಟು ನೀರಿನ ಒಡಲಿಲ್ಲಾ
ಪ್ರೀತಿಯ ಗೋಡೆಯ ಸೂರಿಲ್ಲಾ
ಆದರೆ, ಆ ನನ್ನ ಕಡಲು, ಆ ನನ್ನ ಮರಗಳು,
ಆ ನನ್ನ ನೀರಿನ ಒಡಲು, ಆ ನನ್ನ ಸೂರು
ಎಲ್ಲವೂ ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಕ್ಕ ಈ ಜೀವದ ದೊಸ್ತಿಗಳು!
ಮರೆಯಲಾರೆ ನಾ ಅವರನ್ನು ಮರೆಯಲಾರೆ
ನನ್ನೂರು ಅಲ್ಲಿದೆ ನನಗಾಗಿ ಕಾಯುತಿದೆ.
ವಿಶ್ವ ಪರಿಸರ ದಿನದ ವಿಶೇಷ (ಜುನ್ ೫, ೨೦೧೬)
[ದೂರದಿಂದ ಬಂದು ಸಿಲಿಕಾನ್ ಸಿಟಿ ಎಂಬ ಬಿರುದು ಪಡೆದ ಬೆಂಗಳೂರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ನನ್ನ ಜೊತೆ ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡುತ್ತಿರುವ ನನ್ನ ಸ್ನೇಹಿತರ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಬರೆದ ಪದ್ಯ]
ಭಾರತೀಯ ಸಿನಿಮಾ ರಂಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ಐತಿಹಾಸಿಕ ಮೈಲಿಗಲ್ಲನ್ನು ಮುಟ್ಟಿದ ಸಿನಿಮಾ ಎಂದರೆ ಅದು ತಿಥಿ. ಸಿದ್ಧ ಉಡುಪುಗಳಂತಿದ್ದ ಸಿನಿಮಾ ನೋಡುವ ರೀತಿ ಮತ್ತು ಸಿನಿಮಾ ಮಾಡುವ ರೀತಿ, ಎರಡನ್ನು ಒಡೆದುಹಾಕಿ ಹೊಸ ರೀತಿಯ ಅನುಭವವನ್ನು ಕಟ್ಟಿದ ಹೆಮ್ಮೆ ಈ ಸಿನಿಮಾಗೆ ಸೇರುತ್ತದೆ. ದೇಶ, ಕಾಲಗಳನ್ನು ಮೀರಿ, ಮನುಷ್ಯ ಜೀವಿಗಳ ಸಂಭಂದಗಳನ್ನು, ಬೆಳ್ಳಿ ತೆರೆಯ ಬಣ್ಣ-ಅರಿಯದ ಬಳಗದಿಂದ ಸ್ವಾಭಾವಿಕವಾಗಿ ಹೊರತಂದಿರುವುದು ಅದ್ಭುತವೇ ಸರಿ.
ಬಹುಶಃ ಒಂದು ಸಿನಿಮಾ ಎಂದರೇ- ಕ್ಯಾಮರಾ ತೋರಿಸುವ ಜಗತ್ತು ನಮ್ಮ ಕಣ್ಣ ಮುಂದಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ಕ್ಯಾಮರಾ ಏನನ್ನು ತೋರಿಸುತ್ತದೋ ಅದನ್ನು ಮಾತ್ರ ನಾವು ನೋಡಬಹುದು. ಈ ರೀತಿಯ ಕಟ್ಟುಪಾಡುಗಳನ್ನು ಒಡೆದಿರುವ ತಿಥಿ, ಕ್ಯಾಮರಾ ಎನ್ನುವ ಒಂದು tool ಇಲ್ಲದೆಯೇ ನೇರವಾಗಿ ನಮ್ಮ ಕಣ್ಣಿನಿಂದ ಸಿನಿಮಾವನ್ನು (ಬದುಕನ್ನು) ನೋಡುವ ಅನುಭವ ಕಟ್ಟಿಕೊಡುತ್ತದೆ. ಇಷ್ಟುದಿನ ಕ್ಯಾಮರಾ ಕಟ್ಟಿಕೊಟ್ಟ ಬದುಕಿನ ಅನುಭವದ ಮೂಟೆ ಹೊತ್ತಿದ್ದೆವು, ಕ್ಯಾಮಾರಾ ಪಕ್ಕಕ್ಕೆ ಇಟ್ಟಾಗ ಕಾಣುವ ನೈಜ ಬದುಕಿನ ಅನಾವರಣ- ನಮ್ಮ ಒಳಗೇ ಇರುವ, ಇಷ್ಟು ದಿನ ಕಾಣದಿದ್ದ ಜಗತ್ತಿಗೆ ಕರೆದುಕೊಂಡು ಹೊಗುತ್ತದೆ. ತಿಥಿ ಸಿನಿಮಾದ ವಿಶೇಷ ಇದೇ ಇರಬಹುದು ಎಂಬುದು ನನ್ನ ಅನಿಸಿಕೆ.
ಇಡೀ ಬದುಕಿನ ಕಥೆಯನ್ನು, ತೆರೆಯ ಮೇಲೆ ಮೂರು ನಿಮಿಷ ಬರುವ ಸೆಂಚುರಿ ಗೌಡ (101 ವರ್ಷ), ನಾಲ್ಕು dailogueನಲ್ಲಿ ಹೇಳಿ ಮುಗಿಸಿ ಸಾಯುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಅವನು ಸತ್ತ ಹನ್ನೊಂದನೆಯ ದಿನಕ್ಕೆ, ಅವನ ಮೂರು ತಲೆಮಾರಿನ ಮಕ್ಕಳು (ಸೆಂಚುರಿ ಗೌಡನ ಮಗ ಗಡ್ಡಪ್ಪ; ಗಡ್ಡಪ್ಪನ ಮಗ ತಮ್ಮಣ್ಣ; ತಮ್ಮಣ್ಣನ ಮಗ ಅಭಿ) ಸೇರಿ ತಿಥಿ ಮಾಡುವುದೇ ಕಥೆಯ ಸಾರಾಂಶ. ಬದುಕಿನ ಅನೇಕ ತುಡಿತಗಳನ್ನು ತನ್ನದೇ ಆದ ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟ ಶೈಲಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾತನಾಡಿಸಿದವರಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಉತ್ತರ ಕೊಟ್ಟು ಊರಲ್ಲಾ ಅಲೆಮಾರಿಯಂತೆ ತಿರುಗಾಡುವ ಪಾತ್ರ ಗಡ್ಡಪ್ಪ. ಅಭಿ, ತಮ್ಮಣ್ಣ ಮತ್ತು ಗಡ್ಡಪ್ಪರನ್ನು ಮನುಷ್ಯನ ಜೀವಿತಾವಧಿಯ ಮೂರು ಭಾಗಗಳಾಗಿ ಬಿಂಬಿಸಿ, ಅವರರ ಆಸೆ, ಆಕಾಂಕ್ಷೆಗಳನ್ನು ಅಷ್ಟೇ ನಾಜೂಕಾಗಿ ಸಿನಿಮಾದಲ್ಲಿ ಚಿತ್ರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಇಡೀ ಚಿತ್ರವನ್ನು ಮಂಡ್ಯ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆಯ ನೊದೆಕೊಪ್ಪಲು ಗ್ರಾಮದಲ್ಲೇ, ಆ ಗ್ರಾಮದ ಜನರನ್ನೇ ಪಾತ್ರಧಾರಿಗಳನ್ನಾಗಿ ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು, ಹಳ್ಳಿಯ ಸೂಕ್ಷ್ಮ ಎಳೆಗಳನ್ನು ಚಿತ್ರಿಸಿರುವುದನ್ನು ಪ್ರಶಂಸಿಸಲೇ ಬೇಕು.
ಸಣ್ಣ ಕುರಚಲು ಹುಲ್ಲಗಾವಲು, ಒಂದು ಬದಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂಟಿ ಮರ, ಗಡ್ಡಪ್ಪ ಆಕಡೆಯಿಂದ ರಭಸವಾಗಿ ಬಂದು, ಮರದ ಬಳಿ ನಿಂತು, ಏಲ್ಲೋ ನೋಡುತ್ತಾ, ಬಂದ ದಾರಿಯಲ್ಲೇ ಹೋಗಿ ಮತ್ತೆ tiger brandನ್ನು ಕೈಯಲ್ಲಿ ಹಿಡಿದು ಕುಡಿಯುತ್ತಾ ಬರುವುದನ್ನು ಕಂಡರೆ, ಬದುಕಿನ ಅದೆಷ್ಟೋ ಮಜಲುಗಳನ್ನು ಪುಟಗಟ್ಟಲೆ ವಿಮರ್ಶಿಸಬಹುದಾದು ಅನುಭವವನ್ನು ನಮ್ಮಲ್ಲಿ ಮೂಡಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ಇಡೀ ಸಿನಿಮಾದ ಪೂರ್ತಿ ಗಡ್ಡಪ್ಪ ಒಂದು ಪಾತ್ರವಾಗದೆ, ಬದುಕಿಗೆ ಬೇಕಾದ ಉಸಿರಾಟದ ಗಾಳಿಯಂತೆ ನಿರಂತರವಾಗಿ ಚಲಿಸುತ್ತಿರುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಸಿನಿಮಾ ಮುಗಿದ ಮೇಲೂ ಗಡ್ಡಪ್ಪನ ಪಾತ್ರ, ಅವನ ಮಾತು, ಅವನ ಯೋಚನೆ ಅವಿಸ್ಮರಣೆಯಾಗಿ ಉಳಿಯುವುದರಲ್ಲಿ ಸಂದೆಹವಿಲ್ಲಾ.
ಸಿನಿಮಾದ ಮಧ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಬರುವ ಗಡ್ಡಪ್ಪನ ಕಥೆ- ಆ ಕಥೆಯು ಬದುಕಿನ ಅರ್ಥವನ್ನು ಕಟ್ಟಿ ಕೊಡುವ ರೀತಿ ಅದ್ಭುತವಾಗಿ ಮೂಡಿಬಂದಿದೆ. ಆ ಕಥೆಯೊಂದೇ ಸಾಕು ತಿಥಿಯನ್ನು ಹಾಡಿ ಹೊಗಳಿ ವರ್ಣಿಸುವುದಕ್ಕೆ. ತಿಥಿ ಸಿನಿಮಾದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಎಷ್ಟು ಬರೆದರೂ ಸಾಲದು. ತಿಥಿ ಒಂದು ಅನುಭವ. ಆ ಅನುಭವವನ್ನು ನೋಡಿ ಅನುಭವಿಸಲೇ ಬೇಕು.
ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಬ್ಬ ಮನುಷ್ಯನ ಅಂತ್ಯ ಸಾವು ನಂತರ ಅವನ ತಿಥಿ. ಆದರೆ ಈ “ತಿಥಿ” ಬದುಕಿನ ತಿಥಿ! ನೀವು ಸಿನಿಮಾ ಪ್ರಿಯರಾದರೇ, ತಿಥಿ ನೀವು ನೋಡಲೇಬೇಕಾದ ಸಿನಿಮಾ!!
ಅಂದಹಾಗೆ ಇದು ಕನ್ನಡ ಚಿತ್ರ ಎನ್ನುವುದು ನಮಗೆ ಹೆಮ್ಮೆಯ ವಿಚಾರಾ. ಹಾಗೆಯೇ ತಿಥಿ- ಒಂದು ದೇಶ, ಒಂದು ಭಾಷೆಯನ್ನು ಮೀರಿದ ಚಿತ್ರವೂ ಹೌದು. ಯಾವ ದೇಶಕ್ಕೆ ಹೊದರೂ, ಯಾವ ಭಾಷೆಯೇ ಆದರೂ ಮನುಷ್ಯನ ಬದುಕು ಒಂದೆ ಅಲ್ಲವೇ?
ಇಂತಹ ಒಂದು ಸಿನಿಮಾ ನೀಡಿದ ರಾಮರೆಡ್ಡಿ ಮತ್ತು ಈರೇಗೌಡರವರಿಗೆ ಧನ್ಯವಾಧಗಳು.
Awards for Thithi
Locarno International Film Festival (2015)
Mumbai Film Festival (2015)
Best Kannada Film (2015) by Karnataka Government
Palm Springs International Film Festival (2016)
Pune International Film Festival (2016)
San Francisco International Film Festival (2016)
Hi, welcome to you for the year of light and welcome to you for this interesting lecture.
Yes, we are talking about light, the light which is responsible for the diverse life on Earth and spreads in the unimaginable universe. In the last lecture we spoke about the first light from the Big Bang called CMBR. But in this lecture I don’t directly talk about light. Instead I talk about atoms!!
Atoms are the building blocks of matter. We have more number of atoms in our eye than the total number of stars in a galaxy. This is true with any object which is of the size of an eye. In principle we humans are all collection of atoms that have different names! The matter which surrounds us is also a collection of atoms. Suppose if I am drinking water from a glass. If you shoot this in a video-camera which can only detect atoms regardless of their physical size, shape, and features, you can see that some arrangement of atoms drinking the same atoms which are in different arrangement. This means that, you can form infinite number of structures by arranging atoms. That is what the nature is doing from all these billions of billions years and it continuous do it in future also. So, if you look at animals, birds, plants, humans, mountains, earth, stars and galaxies all these are just arrangement of atoms.
So it is important to study about atom. Until the beginning of 20th century, scientist thought that atom is an indivisible particle of the universe and the fundamental particle of all the objects. Later many observations and sensitive measurements by the 20th century scientist proved that atom is divisible. Today we know that atom is made up of proton, neutron and electrons. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus which concentrates most of the atoms mass while the electrons revolve around the nucleus. If I have to give you the feel of an atom or how big an atom is; imagine like this, consider this room (Auditorium) is of the size of an atom and this tennis ball (author is holding tennis ball) is a nucleus, than the smallest dust grain that you can find in this room is an electron! This means atom mostly contains an empty space! All the mass is concentrated in the nucleus. This is a distinctive sketch of an atom. But you might ask me a question… Do all atoms show the same characteristics? The answer is no. Atom with some fixed number of protons, neutrons and electrons have some physical and chemical characters. But if you change the number of constituent particles of an atom, the characteristics also changes. This means that if you change the number of electrons in an atom it exhibit different characteristics than the previous one. Depending on the number of electrons in an atom a specific name is given to them, like hydrogen which has one electron, helium which has 2 electrons and so on… These are called elements. These are arranged according to the ascending order of the number of electrons in their atoms. This is called Periodic Table. This table makes us to easily identify the element which has a specific character depending on its electron number. This is about atom, and its constituent particles and their arrangement and how there characteristics changes. But why am I talking about this, instead of light!
Yes, I will talk about light, but for a while let us go back to 1930. Wolfgang Pauli an Astrian physicist was trying solve the mysterious violation of law of conservation of energy in process called Beta Decay. I know all of you know about law of conservation of energy, in simple words the law says, energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It can only transfer from one form to another form. And also the energy of the entire universe is constant. In a given process the energy before the process and after the process should be equal. No room for violation of this law in nature. While doing math’s we may do errors in calculating the energies, but nature do not do any error. It never violets the law of conservation of energy! But something strange was happening with beta decay. To know this let us learn about beta decay. Since we know about atom, it is very easy to understand this process. In certain elements the nucleus which contains protons and neutrons becomes unstable due to the more number of neutrons than the protons. If something is unstable it has to give out or it has to accept something in order to attain stable position. Here we have only protons and neutrons in the nucleus. So, what happens to this unstable nucleus? Yes, an extra neutron in the nucleus decays into proton and in this process an electron is emitted out of the nucleus as shown by the below nuclear reaction. (The elements which shows this behavior is called Radioactive Elements and the process is called Radioactivity). This process is called beta decay. (Beta particle = Electron). This is an observable process and the experiments have confirmed this nuclear reaction. But what is the strangeness about this nuclear reaction? You might be surprised to hear this; this nuclear reaction is actually violating the law of conservation of energy! But the question is HOW?
n -> p + e–
If you equate the energies in beta decay process, you will see that the total energy of the emitted particle is less than the energy of reactants (for now consider it as reactants). Let me explain this… In beta decay process an extra neutron in the nucleus decays into proton and stays inside the nucleus. But an electron ejects out from the nucleus and this electron does not belong to orbital electrons, because it is created in the nucleus and emitted out. But the amount of energy that electron is taking out from the nucleus is less compared to the energy used in creation of the electron. This tells us some energy is missing in this process. When we do the experiment, there is no signature of any other particle taking the missing energy. Then where is the missing energy? This is the question that haunted many scientists during the twentieth century. So what do you conclude based on our experiment? Is nature violating the law of conservation of energy or our calculations are wrong?
Pauli worked extensively on this problem of missing energy in beta decay and finally arrived at one conclusion. He believed that the universe is governed by the order of natural laws. And he had firm believes that nature does not violates these laws. More importantly he also believed that his calculations are correct. He said nature is not violating law of conservation of energy. The missing energy in the beta decay is transmitted through a particle called ‘Neutrino’ which has zero mass but has the energy which corresponds to the missing energy! He wrote down all the mathematical calculation to prove the existence of this particle which he called Neutrino and published the paper. But many scientists did not believe Pauli and went on claiming that, this kind of particle does not exist. But Pauli who was theoretical physicist, I mean the one who do only math and calculation to give the theory of nature had solid-believe on his theory. I should say he trusted his calculations so much that, he always said this particle; I mean the neutrino should exist in our nature. This is the beauty of understanding the nature. This is where we should appreciate our language called maths and equations. The numbers and equations hide the unseen exquisiteness of nature.
n -> p + e– +
Finally the beauty of Pauli’s calculation unfolded in the year 1956, when two physicist Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan announced that they have indeed detected neutrino’s in beta decay process predicted by Pauli. It nearly took 16 years to find the existence of the particle predicted by the great physicist Pauli. But you know what, nearly trillions of trillions of trillions neutrinos have passed through your body while listening to this lecture. For every minute billions of neutrino is passing your body. The earth is in the shower of neutrinos from the sun, stars and galaxies endlessly.
Today I am here to talk about neutrinos. When Pauli predicted this particle, he said it has energy but rest mass of the particle is zero, which means these particles never come to rest!! So, how do we detect this particle?
Sir, I have question.
Go Ahead (Author)
Sir, Why do we need to detect neutrinos? Should we detect them only to explain beta decay or is there any other use from them?
Very good question. Beta decay problem is over, it is now confirmed that neutrinos are emitted from the nucleus and law of conservation of energy is successfully explained with this particle. I will reframe your question like this; why do we need to detect neutrinos on a large scale? Does it give any information to us? The answer is yes and let me give you one such example. Let us talk about Sun for a while; the thermonuclear reaction happening at the core is powering sun’s total energy. During this reaction photon (particles of light), neutrinos and other particles are emitted. The light that warms the surface of the earth as well as you and me has come from the photosphere of the sun. Photosphere is the visible disc of the sun. As we all know that light contains photons. These photons are generated at the core of the Sun. It takes billions of years for a photon to reach to the surface of the photosphere; from there the photon takes only 8 minutes to travel to the earth. So the photon which is warming you right now has left the sun’s interiors billions of years ago. Yes….. Absolutely amazing right! If you study this light you will be actually studying the sun’s interior which is present some billions of years ago. So you cannot study real time sun’s core in the visible light. But on the other hand the neutrinos which are created at the sun’s core travel to the earth in just 8 minutes. This is because neutrinos do not interact (very very less interaction) with matter. They just pass through it. But photon suffers trillions of collisions with the matter spending billions of years inside the sun before emerging out of the photosphere. So detecting these solar neutrinos is very helpful in monitoring real time sun’s core. Not only Sun in all the high energetic explosions (Supernovae and other) that happens in our universe emits neutrinos and detecting them will give us clear picture of these events as well as our universe.
How do we detect them? As I said neutrinos interaction with matter is very less. They can pass through humans, buildings and even mountains!! That is why they are called as most elusive particles of the universe. But if we detect them we get a lot of information about our universe. So here it is an astronomical observatory built half a mile down the earth. This is Super-Kamikonde Neutrino Observatory built under Mt Ikenoyama at Japan. This is a human eye to watch supernovae in our milky way galaxy.
The observatory is built underneath the mountain. This is because the instrument which detects the neutrinos is very sensitive. Apart from neutrinos there are other elementary particles reaching earth. If we have not shielded our instruments then the detector will pick up the signs of unwanted particles. How to shield these particles? Yes, go underneath the mountain; let nature itself shield these particles (Most other particles can interact with matter). Most of the neutrino observatories are built in the abanded mining places. Since neutrinos don’t interact with matter, they just pass through the mountain and to the detector. And because of zero interaction with matter for billions of years, they have the information of past! If you detect them you can actually get oldest of old information regarding our universe. Detecting even a single neutrino requires lot of big observatories like this and lot of patience because of its elusive nature.
In this observatory, 50000 tones of distilled water are stored and it is surrounded with scintillating tubes which detects the minute flash of light. But how do you get this flash of light in distilled water? In a minute trillions of trillions of neutrinos are passing through this huge detector. Suppose if one neutrino interacts with the nucleus of water molecule, an electron is emitted. This electron is detected by the very sensitive scintillating tubes by producing a flash of light. Each flash of light can signifies the presence of neutron in the detector. If the activity is more in outer space, I mean if there was a supernova in our galaxy, then flash of light increases indicating the presence of more neutrinos. This has been observed during the Supernovae-1987A in the year 1987.
A flash of light is used to detect one of the most elusive particles of the universe which hides rich information about our home. It is again the light that is doing our work!
Happy International Year of Light.
Thanks a lot for listening to me, that’s it for today.
Have a great evening.
First Image: Google Images
Second, Third and Fourth Images: Screen grab from the documentary Cosmos hosted by Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson
— Year 2015 is celebrated as International Year of Light and Light Based Technology by UN as a global event. This year mark the 150th anniversary of Maxwell’s Equations by James Clerk Maxwell, the man who unfolded the secret of nature and answered what light is made up of.